Tibetans, Ethiopians, and Peruvians.
1) modules for reading and analyzing data from genomic partitioning methods, such as RADseq or hybrid enrichment approaches, 2) faster methods scalable for high-throughput sequencing data, and 3) summary statistics for the analysis of multi-locus population genetics data. Furthermore, DnaSP 6 includes novel modules to perform single- and multi-locus coalescent simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. The DnaSP 6 program, with extensive documentation, is freely available at http://www.ub.edu/dnasp.">http://www.ub.edu/dnasp">http://www.ub.edu/dnasp.
selective sweeps wherein large shifts in the allele frequencies occur at a few loci and evolution via small changes in the allele frequencies at many loci. Although the first process has been thoroughly investigated within the framework of population genetics, the latter is based on quantitative genetics and is much less understood. Here we summarize results from our recent theoretical studies of a quantitative genetic model of polygenic adaptation that makes explicit reference to population genetics to bridge the gap between the two frameworks. Our key results are that polygenic adaptation may be a rapid process and can proceed via subtle or dramatic changes in the allele frequency depending on the sizes of the phenotypic effects relative to a threshold value. We also discuss how the signals of polygenic selection may be detected in the genome. Although powerful methods are available to identify signatures of selective sweeps at loci controlling quantitative traits, the development of statistical tests for detecting small shifts of allele frequencies at quantitative trait loci is still in its infancy.
AbstractPseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the most common nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Although the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa is a critical problem in medical practice, the key features involved in the emergence and spread of MDR P. aeruginosa remain unknown. This study utilized whole genome sequence (WGS) analyses to define the population structure of 185 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates from several countries. Of these 185 isolates, 136 were categorized into sequence type (ST) 235, one of the most common types worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates fell within seven subclades. Each subclade harbors characteristic drug resistance genes and a characteristic genetic background confined to a geographic location, suggesting that clonal expansion following antibiotic exposure is the driving force in generating the population structure of MDR P. aeruginosa. WGS analyses also showed that the substitution rate was markedly higher in ST235 MDR P. aeruginosa than in other strains. Notably, almost all ST235 isolates harbor the specific type IV secretion system and very few or none harbor the CRISPR/CAS system. These findings may help explain the mechanism underlying the emergence and spread of ST235 P. aeruginosa as the predominant MDR lineage.
AbstractGenetic differentiation among symbiotic bacteria is important in shaping biodiversity. The genus Spiroplasma contains species occupying diverse niches and is a model system for symbiont evolution. Previous studies have established that two mosquito-associated species have diverged extensively in their carbohydrate metabolism genes despite having a close phylogenetic relationship. Notably, although the commensal Spiroplasma diminutum lacks identifiable pathogenicity factors, the pathogenic Spiroplasma taiwanense was found to have acquired a virulence factor glpO and its associated genes through horizontal transfer. However, it is unclear if these acquired genes have been integrated into the regulatory network. In this study, we inferred the gene content evolution in these bacteria, as well as examined their transcriptomes in response to glucose availability. The results indicated that both species have many more gene acquisitions from the Mycoides-Entomoplasmataceae clade, which contains several important pathogens of ruminants, than previously thought. Moreover, several acquired genes have higher expression levels than the vertically inherited homologs, indicating possible functional replacement. Finally, the virulence factor and its functionally linked genes in S. taiwanense were up-regulated in response to glucose starvation, suggesting that these acquired genes are under expression regulation and the pathogenicity may be a stress response. In summary, although differential gene losses are a major process for symbiont divergence, gene gains are critical in counteracting genome degradation and driving diversification among facultative symbionts.
AbstractThe human population displays wide variety in demographic history, ancestry, content of DNA derived from hominins or ancient populations, adaptation, traits, copy number variation, drug response, and more. These polymorphisms are of broad interest to population geneticists, forensics investigators, and medical professionals. Historically, much of that knowledge was gained from population survey projects. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, their design specifications are limited and they do not allow a full exploration of biodiversity. We thereby aimed to design the Diversity of REcent and Ancient huMan (DREAM)—an all-inclusive microarray that would allow both identification of known associations and exploration of standing questions in genetic anthropology, forensics, and personalized medicine. DREAM includes probes to interrogate ancestry informative markers obtained from over 450 human populations, over 200 ancient genomes, and 10 archaic hominins. DREAM can identify 94% and 61% of all known Y and mitochondrial haplogroups, respectively, and was vetted to avoid interrogation of clinically relevant markers. To demonstrate its capabilities, we compared its FST distributions with those of the 1000 Genomes Project and commercial arrays. Although all arrays yielded similarly shaped (inverse J) FST distributions, DREAM’s autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean FST, attesting to its ability to discern subpopulations. DREAM performances are further illustrated in biogeographical, identical by descent, and copy number variation analyses. In summary, with approximately 800,000 markers spanning nearly 2,000 genes, DREAM is a useful tool for genetic anthropology, forensic, and personalized medicine studies.
AbstractMany bivalve species have two types of mitochondrial DNA passed independently through the female line (F genome) and male line (M genome). Here we study the cytochrome oxidase I protein in such bivalve species and provide evidence for differences between the F and M proteins in amino acid property values, particularly relating to hydrophobicity and helicity. The magnitude of these differences varies between different regions of the protein and the change from the ancestor is most marked in the M protein. The observed changes occur in parallel and in the same direction in the different species studied. Two possible causes are considered, first relaxation of purifying selection with drift and second positive selection. These may operate in different ways in different regions of the protein. Many different amino acid substitutions contribute in a small way to the observed variation, but substitutions involving alanine and serine have a quantitatively large effect. Some of these substitutions are potential targets for phosphorylation and some are close to residues of functional importance in the catalytic mechanism. We propose that the observed changes in the F and M proteins might contribute to functional differences between them relating to ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential with implications for sperm function.
AbstractThe sperm whale, made famous by Moby Dick, is one of the most fascinating of all ocean-dwelling species given their unique life history, novel physiological adaptations to hunting squid at extreme ocean depths, and their position as one of the earliest branching toothed whales (Odontoceti). We assembled the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) genome and resequenced individuals from multiple ocean basins to identify new candidate genes for adaptation to an aquatic environment and infer demographic history. Genes crucial for skin integrity appeared to be particularly important in both the sperm whale and other cetaceans. We also find sperm whales experienced a steep population decline during the early Pleistocene epoch. These genomic data add new comparative insight into the evolution of whales.